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چهارشنبه 5 آذر 1393 :: نویسنده : الیاس خسروی

باتری

ولتا از كشف خود استفاده كرد و اولین باتری را ساخت. وی ابتدا كاغذی را در آب نمك خیس كرد، سپس در طرفین آن دو تكه فلز روی و نقره گذاشت و در نهایت، یك سری از این باتری ها را پشت سر هم قرار داد. بدین ترتیب وی توانست برای اولین بار اختلاف پتانسیلی قوی ایجاد كند (زیرا اختلاف پتانسیل باتری ها با یكدیگر جمع می‌شود).

باتری

باتری

یك تكه از گیره كاغذ و یك سیم مسی را در داخل لیمو ترشی قرار دهید. با این كار شما یك باتری ساخته‌اید. اگر توسط دو سیم، جریان برق این باتری را به زبانتان برسانید، احساس سوزش می‌كنید.

 

به آزمایش زیر توجّه كنید.

در این آزمایش دو فلز متفاوت درون آب نمك قرار می گیرند. آیا ولت سنج مقداری را نشان می دهد؟

برای مشاهده فیلم کلیک کنید.

 

به آزمایش زیر توجّه كنید. در این آزمایش دو فلز متفاوت درون  نوشابه قرار می گیرند. آیا ولت سنج مقداری را نشان می دهد؟

 

برای مشاهده فیلم کلیک کنید.

 

اندازه اختلاف پتانسیل هر باتری به نوع فلزهای بكار رفته در آن بستگی دارد. معمولاً اختلاف پتانسیل باتری‌ها در حد 5/0 الی 2 ولت است. به عنوان مثال، با استفاده از دو صفحه فلزی سرب و اكسید سرب می‌توان باتری دو ولتی ساخت. یك باتری 12 ولتی ماشین از 6 باتری كوچك 2 ولتی ساخته شده است، به طوری كه قطب مثبت یك باتری به قطب منفی باتری بعد متصل شده است.

باتری باتری

ولتاژ باتری به جنس فلزهای بكار رفته در باتری بستگی دارد و اندازه صفحات فلزی یا به عبارت دیگر ابعاد باتری، تاثیری در مقدار ولتاژ آن ندارد. ابعاد باتری فقط نشان دهندة مقدار ماده شیمیایی بكار رفته در آن و مقدار كل بار قابل انتقال است. پس باتری بزرگتر فقط عمر بیشتری دارد (نه لزوماٌ ولتاژ بیشتری!).

همانطور كه می دانید به روشهای دیگری هم می توان در مدار جریان برقرار كرد. 

 

در مدل سازی زیر یك مولد الكتریكی را مشاهده می‏ كنید. از این مولد برای تأمین برق شهر، دینام دوچرخه و... استفاده می ‏شود. آیا اختلاف پتانسیل ایجاد شده توسط این مولد ثابت است؟

اگر سرعت چرخش مولد تغییر كند، ولتاژ ایجاد شده چه تغییری می‏ كند؟ 

 

در مدل سازی زیر یك نوع مولد الكتریكی دیگر را مشاهده می ‏كنید. آیا اختلاف پتانسیل تولید شده توسط این مولد ثابت است؟

اگر فركانس چرخش مولد تغییر كند، آنگاه شكل ولتاژ مولد چه تغییری می‏ كند؟ تفاوت این دو مولد در چیست؟

 

مرکزیادگیری سایت تبیان



نوع مطلب : فیزیک، شیمی، 
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